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The most popular type of share is called a common or ordinary share. Ordinary shareholders own a piece of the company and have certain rights.
Preference shares are really debt instruments. These shareholders have lent money to the company. In return, they get the first bite of the profits in the form of preference share dividends (the rate is usually linked to the prime rate). If the company is going bankrupt, preference shareholders will be paid out ahead of ordinary shareholders.
ETFs are baskets of shares. For instance, a financial ETF could contain 15 shares in financial sector companies like banks and insurers.